Direct vs. Indirect Jobs
At a Glance
It can be difficult to distinguish the direct and indirect jobs generated by an extractive project.
One way to do this, as put forward by the International Council on Mining and Metals, is to consider whether employees normally carry out their work physically at the mine site or not.
- Enhancing Mining's Contribution to the Zambian Economy and Society (Chamber of Mines of Zambia, International Council on Mining and Metals)
- Impacts and Development in Local Economies Based on Mining: The Case of the Chilean II Region (Patricio Aroca)
- The Challenge of Mineral Wealth: Using Resource Endowments to Foster Sustainable Development (Evelyn Dietsche, David Elliott, Moortaza Jiwanji, Paul Stevens)
- Employment from Mining and Agricultural Investments: How Much Myth, How Much Reality? (Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Olle Ostensson, Perrine Toledano)
- Local Content Policies in the Oil and Gas Sector (Yahya Anouti, Osmel E. Manzano, Silvana Tordo, Michael Warner)
- Mind the Gap: Solving the Skills Shortages in Resources (PricewaterhouseCoopers)
- Human Capital for the Oil, Gas and Minerals Industries: Science, Technology, and Skills for Africa's Development (World Bank)
- Issues in Estimating the Employment Generated by Energy Sector Activities (Robert Bacon, Masami Kojima)
This report looks broadly at local and national aspects of mining’s impact on Zambia. The key implications presented include social ...
Human Capital for the Oil, Gas and Minerals Industries: Science, Technology, and Skills for Africa's Development
This report provides a basic introduction to the extractive industries’ boom throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Areas of focus include ...
The article provides an example of estimating indirect and induced employment from mining and illustrates how differences in procurement ...
This report introduces local content policies (LCPs) and looks specifically at practices meant to promote the growth of economic links from ...
This report analyzes the skills shortages in mining from an Australian perspective. The recommendations presented are broadly useful, ...
This resource presents an in-depth case study examining why structural and macroeconomic reforms in Peru have not resulted in improvements ...
This paper describes the various measures of employment, by category, that are widely used in the extractives industries, and examines ...
Assessing the direct job needs of the mining industry can be difficult. The same is true of the oil and gas industry. Job and skill needs change over time in response to market changes, technological advances, and the life cycle of extractive projects.
It can also be difficult to distinguish between direct and indirect jobs generated by an extractive project. For example, employment statistics may classify workers at a mine site as construction workers; the classification can depend on the location or nature of the company employing them. The International Council on Mining and Metals, which has commissioned several country case studies that evaluate indirect job creation, simply considers whether an employee normally carries out their work physically at the mine site. Based on this criterion, a worker at the mine site is a direct employee; a worker who is normally not at the mine site is an indirect employee. While this definition is not perfect, it avoids some of the statistical problems caused by mining companies’ various outsourcing practices.